Choose Your Machu Picchu Tour
Machu Picchu offers more questions than answers. Why was it built? What purpose did it serve? Why was it abandoned? Very little of what we know about Machu Picchu actually comes from the Incas themselves because they never developed a writing system. Instead, the history of this ancient site is pieced together from scientific research, decades of ethnographic research, and deep historical content.
1300 to 1500 AD – The Inca Empire developed as a city-state. Over the next two centuries, the Inca first co-existed with, and then absorbed neighboring ethnic groups. Cusco was established as the Inca capital city and they built foot trails to connect the different cities of their empire, expanding through present-day Peru, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, and Colombia.
1450 AD – Construction for Machu Picchu probably began during the mid-14th century at the height of the Inca Empire during the reign of Pachacutec, the powerful 9th king.
Why was Machu Picchu built?
Most scholars agree that Machu Picchu was built as a royal estate. Others speculate the Inca city was a sacred center where the great political, religious and economic minds of the Inca Empire gathered.
1527 AD – Internal strife weakens the Inca Empire. The death of Huayna Capac, the 11th Inca king, sparked a war of succession between his sons Huascar (based in Cusco) and Atahualpa (based in Ecuador). The civil war ended when Atahualpa’s generals occupied Cusco and captured Huascar.
1531 – 1533 AD – Francisco Pizarro and his Spanish troops arrived to the shores of present-day Peru. They devised the capture of Atahualpa in Cajamarca and later executed the Inca king, marking the formal end of the Inca Empire.
Why was Machu Picchu abandoned?
The Machu Picchu citadel was never finished. Some researchers believe the importance of the city gradually declined after the death of Pachacutec. Other theories speculate that the inhabitants of Machu Picchu fled in fear of the Spanish. Over the centuries, widespread knowledge of the city was lost to official memory, with the exception of some locals in the region.
1911 – American archeologist and Yale professor Hiram Bingham traveled to the Cusco region with a small team in search of the legendary town of Vilcabamba where rebel leader Manco Inca retreated to safety from Spanish troops. A local farmer told Bingham about the existence of abandoned ruins he called Machu Picchu. On July 24, 1911 locals guided Bingham up the mountain where he saw the citadel overgrown with trees and moss for the first time.
News of the “Lost Inca City” in Peru traveled like wildfire. Bingham believed that the Machu Picchu he chanced upon was in fact the lost Inca city of Vilcabamba. It wasn’t until after his death in the 1950s that what’s now believed to be Vilcabamba was discovered further west of the Machu Picchu citadel.
April 1913 – National Geographic published an article by Hiram Bingham detailing his first visit to Machu Picchu.
October 1948 – The zigzag road linking Aguas Calientes to the famous ruins was named the Hiram Bingham Highway.
1951-1977: Ongoing construction of the region’s railway connected Cusco to Santa Teresa (Km 129) in 1951 and Quillabamba (Km 172) in 1977. The train station for Machu Picchu in Aguas Calientes exists along the track between Santa Teresa and Quillabamba.
1983 – Machu Picchu is inscribed as a UNESCO Historic Sanctuary.
2007– Machu Picchu is announced as one of New 7 Wonders of the World; along with Christ Redeemer statue in Brazil; Great Wall of China; the Taj Mahal in India; Roman Colosseum in Italy; Petra in Italy; and the Pyramid at Chichén Itzá in Mexico.
2011: Machu Picchu celebrated its 100th birthday after being rediscovery in 1911.
2012: The last shipment of more than 35,000 archaeological pieces Hiram Bingham had removed from Machu Picchu during his 1911-1915 expeditions were returned to Peru. These ceramics, stone objects, and skeletal remains were previously in custody of Yale University. Some of these artifacts are now on display in Cusco at the Museum Casa Concha (320 Santa Catalina Ancha, admission fee).
Today: Machu Picchu is the most visited attraction in South America. Since the 80s, the number of visitors has increased from the low 100,000s to an all time high of 1.3 million in 2013. The conservation of Machu Picchu is put front and center with tourism on the rise and a new airport being built in the Sacred Valley.
Machu Picchu is very remote. From Cusco, the Sacred Valley winds through the eastern slopes of the Andes down to tropical mountain forests bordering the Amazon Rainforest. It’s here, some 50 mi (80 km) east of Cusco, that the Inca built Machu Picchu on a high ridge between Huayna Picchu and Machu Picchu Mountains. The Urubamba River far below flows along the valley floor past Aguas Calientes, the gateway town to Machu Picchu.
Machu Picchu is actually lower in elevation than Cusco and the Sacred Valley.
- Machu Picchu citadel 7,970 ft (2430 m)
- Huayna Picchu summit (8,920 ft / 2,720 m)
- Machu Picchu Mountain summit (10,100 ft / 3,080 m)
- Cusco (11,120 ft /3,400 m)
Altitude sickness is a common health concern for folks going to Machu Picchu. Everyone reacts differently, but severe reactions to high elevations are rare and hard to predict. Many travelers only experience minor symptoms, such as shortness of breath, headache, loss of appetite, or nausea, as a result of the altitude.
Located on the cusp of the Andes Mountains and upper Amazon basin, the mild subtropical climate of Machu Picchu is more humid than Cusco and the Sacred Valley. Day temperatures are warm and cool off, especially at night. Water never freezes at Machu Picchu.
Warm and humid during the day. Cool at night, though usually warmer than Cusco. Evening temperatures in the rainy season are warmer.
- Daytime: 68-80 F (20-27 C)
- Nighttime: 50-64 F (10-18 C)
Dry Season Vs. Rainy Season
- Dry season: April to October
- Rainy season: November to March
*Note that in this part of Peru, there’s no strict separation between the rainy and dry seasons. On the one hand, rain is possible at any time of year. On the other, even in the rainy season, clear blue skies are not uncommon after a rainstorm.
Getting to Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu is located in a very remote region of Peru and transportation there are limited. You have two options; take the train or do a trek. There are no roads that go all the way to Aguas Calientes, the gateway town to Machu Picchu, so you cannot take a bus or car there.
Train To Machu Picchu
Many travelers ride to Machu Picchu in comfort on the train. From Cusco, the railway winds through a narrow gorge before dropping into the Sacred Valley . The train makes a stop in the Sacred Valley at Ollantaytambo to pick up more passengers and then continues along a stretch of track hugging the Urubamba River through lush green foliage all the way to Machu Picchu.
There are different train services (Vistadome, Expedition, Hiram Bingham) to select from as well as various morning and evening departures. Don’t worry, your travel advisor will customize your itinerary with the best train option for you.
Train Routes & Times
- Cusco to Machu Picchu – 4 hrs
- Ollantaytambo to Machu Picchu – 2 hrs
- Urubamba to Machu Picchu – 3 hrs
- In Cusco, passengers board the train at the Poroy Station that’s about a 20-minute taxi ride from the city plaza.
- In the Sacred Valley, the train station is Ollantaytambo is where most passengers board the train. The train station in Urubamba has limited departure times.
- The Machu Picchu train station is centrally located in the town of Aguas Calientes near the artisanal market. To get to Machu Picchu, you then need to take a 20-minute bus ride (ticket required) up the hill to the citadel’s entrance gates or hike up. The bus station is a few blocks from the train station.
When should I buy my train tickets?
Train tickets to Machu Picchu are in high demand during peak season (June, July, August) and regularly sell our several days in advance. Waiting to purchase your tickets in Cusco is not recommended as the desired dates and times you want may not be available.
Train Luggage Restrictions
Each passenger is allowed one carry-on luggage no more than 11 lbs (5kg) because space aboard the train is limited. While visiting Machu Picchu, many hotels offer complimentary luggage storage where you can leave a separate bag filled with belonging you won’t need for this leg of your trip.
Treks to Machu Picchu
Adventurous spirits should trek to Machu Picchu! Trekking packages are organized so you trek to the famous archaeological site and then return by train on the return leg of your journey.
The iconic 4-day Inca Trail to Machu Picchu is the most popular trek in South America. Its trail goes through high Andean passes and past lesser-known Inca sites. The grand finale of this 4-day adventure unfolds as trekkers enter Machu Picchu through the Sun Gate for sunrise. There’s also a 2-day Inca Trail for trekkers on a tighter schedule.
To hike the Inca Trail, you must reserve your permit in advance. Only 500 people can be on the trail each day, which includes out-of-town trekkers and persons of the professional trekking teams. In the high season from May to October Inca Trail permits should be bought 2 to 6 months in advance.
Alternative Treks to Machu Picchu
The following treks are known as the alternative treks to Machu Picchu.
Each one has unique highlights, and unlike the Inca Trail, don’t require a trail permit and give you more planning flexibility.
Unlike the Inca Trail, these options do not end at the Sun Gate of Machu Picchu. Instead, you stay the final night of the trekking tour at a hotel in Aguas Calientes and then go on a guided tour of the ruins on the next and final day.
Options for Machu Picchu hotels range from 5-star luxury resorts to budget dorms and everything in between. Machu Picchu Sanctuary Lodge is the only hotel up on the mountain next to the ruins. All other accommodations in Aguas Calientes are concentrated in the tiny town that has sprung up around the train station. Popular hotels book up quickly so be sure to make reservations as soon as you know your Peru travel dates. The following are our preferred hotels for travel to Machu Picchu.
Inkaterra El Pueblo
Kilometer 110 Via Ferrea, Aguas Calientes, Machu Picchu
The Inkaterra Machu Picchu Pueblo Hotel is a naturalist’s haven. Conveniently nestled in the verdant Andean cloud forest, this lovely hotel is the perfect place to catch a glimpse of the astonishing flora and fauna of the region. The eco-friendly hotel resembles an Andean village and is comprised of charming white-washed cottages decorated with modern indigenous art as well as authentic pre-Columbian artifacts. With a commitment to indulging the whims of its guests, this luxury hotel expertly combines nature and comfort to create a one-of-a-kind Machu Picchu experience. Try some regional dishes at the excellent restaurant overlooking the Urubamba River.
Av. Pachacutec 109, Aguas Calientes, Machu Picchu
Ideally located near the Aguas Calientes train station and close to where the buses depart for the short shuttle bus to Machu Picchu, El MaPi Hotel by Inkaterra is perfect for travelers who want to catch the sunrise over the ruins. The modern and stylish hotel aims to be the best in its category and offers great value services and décor. It also boasts beautifully landscaped gardens and a hot tub where guests can relax at night with a cocktail after a delicious dinner.
Casa Andina Standard Machu Picchu
Prolongacion Imperio de Los Incas E - 34, Aguas Calientes, Machu Picchu
Always a reliable choice for mid-range accommodation in Peru, Casa Andina has recently opened a Machu Picchu hotel that greets guests with friendly service and all the amenities needed for an overnight stay in Aguas Calientes. This 3-star hotel offers 54 rooms distributed on 5 floors and a restaurant overlooking the Urubamba River.
Calle Wiracocha 202, Aguas Calientes, Machu Picchu
Situated in the middle of Aguas Calientes town, within easy walking distance of the train station and the shuttle stop to Machu Picchu, Waman Hotel and its friendly staff are ready to receive travelers. Breakfast and dinner are served on the 6th-floor, glass-enclosed Anka Restaurant, where on misty mornings you’ll feel like you’re floating in the clouds. Each of the 31 rooms features a flatscreen TV with cable channels, safe box, minibar, free WiFi, and bathroom with Jacuzzi and hot shower.
See all Machu Picchu Hotels
Eating options outside the entrance gates to Machu Picchu are convenient, though limited and pricey compared to restaurants in Aguas Calientes.
Arrange A Box Lunch
Order a pre-made box lunch to take with you to Machu Picchu. Ask your travel advisor what options are available for your itinerary.
Sanctuary Hotel Lunch Buffet
Enjoy a buffet lunch at the only hotel located up on the mountain next to the entrance to Machu Picchu. Choose from an elaborate spread of international or Peruvian food options.
Machu Picchu Snack Bar
Off to the side of the entrance, the snack bar (with outdoor seating) is a convenient place to grab a bite to eat. Food options include sandwiches, empanadas, burgers, and pizzas.
What is included in my Machu Picchu tour?
Private and group tours for Machu Picchu are available. Your guide will take you on a 2-3 hour walking tour to the main attractions, tell you about the legends and myths of the ancient site, and answer your questions. Enjoy the rest of your day at Machu Picchu exploring and soaking in the marvelous views on your own. A private tour can be customized based on a traveler’s own preferences.
How much should I tip my tour guide?
Tipping is a great way to show your appreciate for a job well done. The amount of tip you leave is up to your discretion. For a guide that has done an excellent job, we recommend tipping 10-30 Soles per person for a half day tour and 20 – 60 Soles per person for a full day tour. These tip ranges represent a total amount that varies on the number of people on your tour and can be divided amongst everyone.
When is the best time to visit Machu Picchu?
- Travel during shoulder months (April, May, September, and October) for smaller crowds and generally good weather.
- The most popular time to visit Machu Picchu is during the dry season (April to October) when sunny blue skies are more common. June, July, and August tend to be the busiest months at Machu Picchu.
- Traveling to Machu Picchu during the rainy season (November-March) has benefits too. Of course there’s a higher chance of showers, but the ruins aren’t as crowded and flowers are in bloom.
What is bimodal transportation to Machu Picchu?
Bimodal transportation to Machu Picchu is a combination of bus and train service offered during the region’s rainy season. The railway between Cusco and Ollantaytambo closes during this time because heavy storms can cause flooding or landslides along the tracks. So, bus service is first offered from Cusco to Ollantaytambo and then passengers board the train for the rest of their trip to Machu Picchu. The dates for bimodal transportation to Machu Picchu varies each year. If you buy round trip train tickets between Ollantaytambo (in the Sacred Valley) and Machu Picchu, then bimodal transportation does not apply to your travel itinerary.
What should I bring to Machu Picchu?
- Passport and Machu Picchu Ticket: You need to present both documents at the entrance gate. Bring your original passport because a copy will not suffice.
- Daypack: Bring a backpack with snug straps to tote around your camera, sunglasses, bottled water, and other Machu Picchu essentials.
- Water & Snacks
- Good shoes: There are a lot of stone steps at Machu Picchu!
- Hiking Poles: If you want to use hiking poles at Machu Picchu, make sure they have protective rubber tips.
- Dress in layers
- Sun/Rain Protection
- Insect Repellant